DocuWatch on Facebook
Art America Britain History Science Societies War Shop
DocuWatch

Biology - Fungi

« Biology - Flagellates And Amoebas

Biology - Plants »

Description

From Wikipedia

Biology - Fungi

A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The Fungi  are classified as a kingdom that is separate from plants, animals and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. These and other differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common ancestor (a monophyletic group). This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes). The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology, which is often regarded as a branch of botany, even though genetic studies have shown that fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants.

Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil, on dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange. They have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles, as a leavening agent for bread, and in fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are also used as biological agents to control weeds and pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans. The fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g. rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.

The fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, and morphologies ranging from single-celled aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at around 1.5 million species, with about 5% of these having been formally classified. Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, and Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits. Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification of Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla.

Tags

 

Other videos in channel "Biology":

 Metamorphosis - Amphibian Nature Documentary Metamorphosis - Amphibian Nature Documentary A Vital Poison (1993) A Vital Poison (1993) African Sleeping Sickness (1988) African Sleeping Sickness (1988)
Alergic To The 20th Century - (1993) Alergic To The 20th Century - (1993) Alternative Medicine - Critical Eye Alternative Medicine - Critical Eye
Anasthetics Anasthetics Assault on the Male Assault on the Male Awakening the Frozen Addicts (1993) Awakening the Frozen Addicts (1993)
BioBricks - Building Blocks of Life BioBricks - Building Blocks of Life Biology - Bacteria Biology - Bacteria
Biology - Flagellates And Amoebas Biology - Flagellates And Amoebas Biology - Fungi Biology - Fungi Biology - Plants Biology - Plants
Biology - Structure And Function Biology - Structure And Function Biology at War A Plague in the Wind - (1984) Biology at War A Plague in the Wind - (1984) Biology-Science of Life 01 - 10 Biology-Science of Life 01 - 10
Biology-Science of Life 11 - 20 Biology-Science of Life 11 - 20 Biology-Science of Life 21 - 25 Biology-Science of Life 21 - 25 Biosphere 2 Biosphere 2
Blood and Guts - A History of Surgery Blood and Guts - A History of Surgery Botany of Desire Botany of Desire Cancer at Bay - (1988) Cancer at Bay - (1988)
Cell Biology Cell Biology Communication in Bees Communication in Bees Defeating Cancer - (2012) Defeating Cancer - (2012)
Defeating the Superbugs - (2012) Defeating the Superbugs - (2012) Doctors in the Death Zone - (2007) Doctors in the Death Zone - (2007) Does The MMR Jab Cause Autism? - (2005) Does The MMR Jab Cause Autism? - (2005)
Dr. Money and the boy with no Penis Dr. Money and the boy with no Penis Elements Of Biology Elements Of Biology Energy Transfer - Biology Energy Transfer - Biology
Foetal Attraction Foetal Attraction Fungi The Rotten World About Us Fungi The Rotten World About Us Greatest Discoveries - Biology Greatest Discoveries - Biology
Greatest Discoveries - Medicine Greatest Discoveries - Medicine Homeopathy: The Test Homeopathy: The Test How Much Is Your Dead Body Worth How Much Is Your Dead Body Worth
How To Grow A Planet How To Grow A Planet Human Timepiece Human Timepiece Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria
Inside The Living Body Inside The Living Body Introduction To Cells Introduction To Cells Life Blood Life Blood
Making Sex Pay Making Sex Pay Malaria Defeating The Curse - (2005) Malaria Defeating The Curse - (2005) Mutation - The Science of Survival Mutation - The Science of Survival
Pandemic: A Horizon Guide Pandemic: A Horizon Guide Phage - The Virus that Cures Phage - The Virus that Cures Pill Poppers Pill Poppers
SARS, The True Story SARS, The True Story Search for the Polio Vaccine Search for the Polio Vaccine Selling Sickness Selling Sickness
Sexual Chemistry Sexual Chemistry Skeleton Key - (1999) Skeleton Key - (1999) Strange Days on Planet Earth Strange Days on Planet Earth
Strange Science of Decay Strange Science of Decay Sudden Death Sudden Death Thalidomide, A Wonder Drug - (2004) Thalidomide, A Wonder Drug - (2004)
The Amazing Lives of Plants The Amazing Lives of Plants The Art Of Breathing The Art Of Breathing The Body In Question The Body In Question
The Cell The Cell The Company of Ants and Bees - (1990) The Company of Ants and Bees - (1990) The discovery of penicillin (1964) The discovery of penicillin (1964)
The First Flower The First Flower The Flow Of Energy The Flow Of Energy The Man Who Lost His Body The Man Who Lost His Body
The Mould the Myth and the Microbe - (1986) The Mould the Myth and the Microbe - (1986) The Search For Modern Medicines The Search For Modern Medicines The Secret Life of Plants The Secret Life of Plants
The Secret Life of your Bodyclock - (2009) The Secret Life of your Bodyclock - (2009) The Vitamins The Vitamins Too Big Too Soon? (1995) Too Big Too Soon? (1995)
Transplant Transplant Ulcer Wars - (1994) Ulcer Wars - (1994) Understanding Sex Understanding Sex
Viruses - Cell Pirates Viruses - Cell Pirates Waiting for a Heartbeat - (2006) Waiting for a Heartbeat - (2006) Why Do Viruses Kill Why Do Viruses Kill
Video channels
Videos in this channel
Adsense
Featured
Featured
Featured
Featured
Featured
Featured