Quantum biology seeks to investigate the life sciences in terms of quantum theory. This includes attempts to study biological processes and dynamic molecular structures in terms of quantum mechanics (QM). For example, investigations of dynamic molecular structure and energy transfer at the quantum level have credibility if they explain macroscopic biological observables that otherwise are inexplicable . Quantum biochemistry and quantum studies of photosynthetic processes/photosynthesis have produced significant, verifiable results. In particular the step-wise, quantum release of protons upon photon absorption linked to water `splitting' in photosynthesis requires a quantum theoretical explanation involving complex photosystem II. Furthermore, both experimental and theoretical studies support the involvement of quantum tunnelling mechanisms in enzyme reactions. Fundamental biological processes that involve the conversion of energy into forms that are usable for chemical transformations are quantum mechanical in nature. These processes involve chemical reactions, light absorption, formation of excited electronic states, transfer of excitation energy, and the transfer of electrons and protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical processes such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Quantum biology uses mathematical computation to model biological interactions in light of QM effects . The need for a quantum theoretical study of genetic systems has been pointed out by Erwin Schrodinger in 1946, and followed up with a detailed formal approach to Quantum Genetics by Robert Rosen in 1961. An unresolved and still controversial issue in this field is that of non-trivial (i.e. not limited to properties of molecules) role of quantum effects in biological systems . However recent studies of transcription are consistent with quantum information processing of coherent duplex DNA states by the transcriptase.